1What are tocotrienols?
Tocotrienols have similar basic structures to Tocopherols, differing only by the presence of double bonds in phytyl hydrocarbon chain tail of the tocotrienols.
2Why should we take tocotrienols?
Tocotrienols are up to 50 times more powerful anti-oxidants than tocopherols, and exert more benefits and more potent biological functions not exhibited by tocopherols.
3What are the health benefits of tocotrienols?
Being more powerful antioxidants than tocopherols, tocotrienols have a greater ability to prevent the formation and propagation of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced by our body's metabolism.

Beneficial biological functions of tocotrienols reported in well-established scientific journals include:
  1. Resist oxidative damage of body biological molecules and tissues,
  2. Inhibit and kill cancer cells through apoptosis, Apoptosis is a form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of the events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area.
  3. Lower the so-called bad LDL cholesterol while retain good HDL cholesterol,
  4. Resist and reduce hypertension, Lowers Blood Pressure.
  5. Protect skin from damage by ultra-violet rays of the sun (prevents premature ageing),
  6. Inhibit arteriosclerosis, prevent clogging of arteries.
  7. Neuroprotection (may prevent onset of Alzheimer's disease), and
  8. Reduce inflammation could otherwise be a precursor to blocking of arteries.
4What are the dietary sources of tocotrienols?
Tocotrienols are naturally present in various food sources such as palm oil, rice bran oil, oats, barley, wheat germ and rye. Whereas sunflower, peanut, walnut, sesame, rapeseed, soybean, corn and olive oils, contain only tocopherols.
5What is the recommended daily dosage of tocotrienols for a healthy person?
There is no established RDA* for a healthy person. However, based on the scientific researches and clinical trials, we recommend a minimum of 50mg tocotrienols per day for maintenance of health functions.

For therapeutic purposes, it has been reported that dosages of 400mg of tocotrienols per day have proven beneficial.

*RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance, sometimes called Recommended Daily Allowance or Recommended Daily Amount, relates to the Adequate Intake or Daily Value of the amount of a nutrient that is required to maintain good health in the average person.
6Can we consume sufficient amounts of tocotrienols through our daily diet?
Most vitamin E containing food contains only alpha-tocopherols and none or negligible amounts tocotrienols. Tocotrienols are scarce in nature with the highest concentration of tocotrienols found in palm oil (700-1200ppm). Due to the low concentration of tocotrienols in food, it is not possible to consume the required amount of tocotrienols that medical studies shown can provide us with beneficial functions.
7Can we get enough tocotrienols from our daily cooking with palm oil?
Normal Palm cooking oil (also known as refined palm olein) in market contains only about 0.07% tocols. In order to consume the recommended quantity of minimum 60mg tocotrienols per day, one would need to consume about 114g(about 8 tablespoons) of palm olein a day. This would not be desirable for those people who desire to control their dietary fat intake.
8How our bodies absorb tocotrienols?
Being a fat-soluble vitamin, tocotrienols are absorbed in the same manner as fat; just like other fat-soluble vitamins (A, D and K) and phytonutrients like carotenoids. Secretion of pancreatic juice and bile form micelles which assist the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins into our body. The vitamin will pass across the intestine wall and transport in the bloodstream to various organs that needed them. However, the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients will be variable in different individuals depending on their daily fat intake. It is recommended to consume tocotrienols with or after meal to ensure better absorption.
9Why should we take tocotrienols?
Evidence- based researches and clinical trials have shown wide ranging health benefits of tocotrienols. Therefore, it is recommended that young adults begin taking tocotrienol supplements, and continue usage throughout their life. It is wise for athletes, joggers, bodybuilders and sportsman to take tocotrienols regularly, as strenuous activities increase oxidative stress, which without the benefits of tocotrienols, will lead to inflammation and damage to body cells. Furthermore, tocotrienols assist in the rate of recovery from muscle ache after strenuous exercise.

For people who have a family with history of any of the major degenerative diseases such as: coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cancer, Alzheimer's and diabetes, are particularly advised to take tocotrienols, for the prevention or control of these diseases.
10Are there any cosmeceutical benefits of using tocotrienols in cosmetic products?
Yes. Vitamin E in the form of tocotrienols has a long history of use in the cosmeceutical industry for its main effect on:
  1. Inhibition of melanin content in skin, promoting skin lightening;
  2. Protection from ultraviolet radiation, (reducing or preventing sunburn);
  3. Enhancing moisturization of skin; and
  4. Slowing down the ageing of skin by preventing oxidative stress, (anti-wrinkle)
11I saw alpha-tocopheryl acetate as one of the ingredients in my sunscreens. Is it same as alpha tocopherol?
Alpha-tocopherol protects the skin against cancer resulting from exposure to UV- B rays. But, alpha- tocopheryl acetate does not protect the skin against UV-B rays or these cancers.
12Why do I need oral Vitamin E supplement everyday for skin protection? I apply sunscreen enriched with Vitamin E everyday.
Sunscreens and protective clothing can only reduce exposure. Vitamin E can reduce photo-ageing and the risk of skin cancer. Intake of Vitamin E will also further enrich the skin and increase the protection under normal conditions.
13Which one is better? Alpha-, beta-, gamma- or delta- of tocotrienol?
All the four forms of tocotrienols are much more potent than alpha-tocopherol in different health properties:
  1. Alpha- tocotrienols : Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotection
  2. Beta- Tocotrienols : Reduce cholesterol
  3. Gamma- tocotrienols : It absorb the UV rays that would otherwise lead to increased content of melanin in the skin
  4. Delta- tocotrienols : Anti-cancer, radiation-protection, and blood-lipid lowering
Combination of these four forms of tocotrienols has better synergistic effects for improvement of general health. Many more clinical trials are in progress to prove and discover more potent biological functions of tocotrienols.
14Why are tocotrienols more expensive compared to synthetic alpha-tocopherols?
Most of the Vitamin E products in the market are cheap as they are synthetically produced, rather than extracted from natural materials. Synthetic dl alpha tocopherols are cheap and simple to produce. However, since the synthetic alpha-tocopherol is a mixture of “d” & “l” forms it is therefore less potent than the natural 100% d-alpha tocopherols.

Natural d-alpha tocopherol is more abundant than tocotrienols, and is relatively easy to extract. Thus natural d-alpha tocopherol is less expensive to produce than tocotrienols.

The molecular distillation process we utilize for the extraction and concentration of alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols from palm oil is a much more expensive process, that enables us to produce the best quality of products.
15What should I look for when buying Vitamin E tocotrienol products?
Natural, palm- oil derived tocotrienols products are highly recommended, as they contain the full- spectrum of tocotrienols, as well as alpha- tocopherol.

In addition to tocopherols and tocotrienols, there may be listed other components that have positive synergistic effects in maintenance of body health when they are combined with tocotrienols, e. g. carotenoids, phytosterols, and squalene.

d- alpha tocopherol is the most common natural form of vitamin E, and is present together with tocotrienols extracted from palm oil.

You should beware of: d- alpha tocopheryl acetate & d- alpha tocopheryl succinates as these forms are not as potent as natural tocotrienols.

Synthetic forms of vitamin E are labelled with a "dl- prefix" noting that they also contain the "l" optical isomers, that are undesirable.
16Are tocotrienols safe? What about regulatory approval and registration of tocotrienols?
Tocotrienols are safe, and are approved as a food additive in many developed countries. Tocotrienols are approved for use in dietary supplements in Australia, Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Canada and the United States.

Palm Tocotrienols Complex is now Self-Affirmed GRAS (Oct 2009) according to Title 21 of the Federal Regulation ( FDA) for use as an ingredient in a variety of foods. (GRAS - Generally Regarded As Safe).

Tocotrienols have a blood thinning effect, that is beneficial to most people, with an exception of those with bleeding diseases, and those already taking blood thinning medicines. As with all medicines, nutraceuticals and supplements, it is wise to consult your physician if there are any possible concerns.
17Can children and pregnant women consume tocotrienols?
It is advisable to consult a physician before giving vitamin E supplements to babies, young children or pregnant women or those with bleeding diseases or on blood-thinning medications.
18Is it possible to overdose? Is there any side effects?
The RDA of vitamin E is 15IU and the toxic level is 3200IU that is 213 times higher, which provides a very wide margin of safety.

A small number of people might react differently from the great majority, due to individual sensitivity, medications they take and health condition.

Tocotrienols have a blood thinning effect, that is beneficial to most people, with an exception of those with bleeding diseases, and those already taking blood thinning medicines. As with all medicines, nutraceuticals and supplements, it is wise to consult your physician if there are any possible concerns.